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The World Until Yesterday

What Can We Learn From Traditional Societies?
Diamond, Jared M. (Book - 2012)
Average Rating: 3.5 stars out of 5.
The World Until Yesterday
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Most of us take for granted the features of our modern society, from air travel and telecommunications to literacy and obesity. Yet for nearly all of its six million years of existence, human society had none of these things. While the gulf that divides us from our primitive ancestors may seem unbridgeably wide, we can glimpse much of our former lifestyle in those largely traditional societies still or recently in existence. Societies like those of the New Guinea Highlanders remind us that it was only yesterday, in evolutionary time, when everything changed, and that we moderns still possess bodies and social practices often better adapted to traditional than to modern conditions. This book provides a firsthand picture of the human past as it had been for millions of years, a past that has mostly vanished, and considers what the differences between that past and our present mean for our lives today. The author does not romanticize traditional societies, after all, we are shocked by some of their practices, but he finds that their solutions to universal human problems such as child rearing, elder care, dispute resolution, risk, and physical fitness have much to teach us.
Authors: Diamond, Jared M.
Title: The world until yesterday
what can we learn from traditional societies?
Publisher: New York : Viking, ©2012.
Characteristics: xi, 499 pages, [32] pages of plates :,illustrations (some color), maps ;,25 cm
Content Type: text
Media Type: unmediated
Carrier Type: volume
Contents: At the Airport. An airport scene ; Why study traditional societies? ; States ; Types of traditional societies ; Approaches, causes, and sources ; A small book about a big subject ; Plan of the book.
Part one. Setting the Stage by Dividing Space. Friends, enemies, strangers, and traders (Boundary ; Mutually exclusive territories ; Non-exclusive land use ; Friends, enemies, and strangers ; First contacts ; Trade and traders ; Market economies ; Traditional forms of trade ; Traditional trade items ; Who trades what? ; Tiny nations).
Part two. Peace and War. Compensation for the death of a child (An accident ; A ceremony ; What if? ; What the state did ; New Guinea compensation ; Life-long relationships ; Other non-state societies ; State authority ; State civil justice ; Defects in state civil justice ; State criminal justice ; Restorative justice ; Advantages and their price) ; A short chapter, about a tiny war (The Dani war ; The war's time-line ; The war's death toll) ; A longer chapter, about many wars (Definitions of war ; Sources of information ; Forms of traditional warfare ; Mortality rates ; Similarities and differences ; Ending warfare ; Effects of European contact ; Warlike animals, peaceful peoples ; Motives for traditional war ; Ultimate reasons ; Whom do people fight? ; Forgetting Pearl Harbor).
Part three. Young and Old. Bringing up children (Comparisons of child-rearing ; Childbirth ; Infanticide ; Weaning and birth interval ; On-demand nursing ; Infant-adult contact ; Fathers and allo-parents ; Responses to crying infants ; Physical punishment ; Child autonomy ; Multi-age playgroups ; Child play and education ; Their kids and our kids) ; The treatment of old people : cherish, abandon, or kill? (The elderly ; Expectations about eldercare ; Why abandon or kill? ; Usefulness of old people ; Society's values ; Society's rules ; Better or worse today? ; What to do with older people?).
Part four. Danger and Response. Constructive paranoia (Attitudes towards danger ; A night visit ; A boat accident ; Just a stick in the ground ; Taking risks ; Risks and talkativeness) ; Lions and other dangers (Dangers of traditional life ; Accidents ; Vigilance ; Human violence ; Diseases ; Responses to diseases ; Starvation ; Unpredictable food shortages ; Scatter your land ; Seasonality and food storage ; Diet broadening ; Aggregation and dispersal ; Responses to danger).
Part five. Religion, Language, and Health. What electric eels tell us about the evolution of religion (Questions about religion ; Definitions of religion ; Functions and electric eels ; The search for causal explanations ; Supernatural beliefs ; Religion's function of explanation ; Defusing anxiety ; Providing comfort ; Organization and obedience ; Codes of behavior towards strangers ; Justifying war ; Badges of commitment ; Measures of religious success ; Changes in religion's functions) ; Speaking in many tongues (Multilingualism, The world's language total ; How languages evolve ; Geography of language diversity ; Traditional multilingualism ; Benefits of bilingualism ; Alzheimer's disease ; Vanishing languages ; How languages disappear ; Are minority languages harmful? ; Why preserve languages? ; How can we protect languages?) ; Salt, sugar, fat, and sloth (Non-communicable diseases ; Our salt intake ; Salt and blood pressure ; Causes of hypertension ; Dietary sources of salt ; Diabetes ; Types of diabetes ; Genes, environment, and diabetes ; Pima Indians and Nauru Islanders ; Diabetes in India ; Benefits of genes for diabetes ; Why is diabetes low in Europeans? ; The future of non-communicable diseases).
At Another Airport. From the jungle to the 405 ; Advantages of the modern world ; Advantages of the traditional world ; What can we learn?
Summary: Most of us take for granted the features of our modern society, from air travel and telecommunications to literacy and obesity. Yet for nearly all of its six million years of existence, human society had none of these things. While the gulf that divides us from our primitive ancestors may seem unbridgeably wide, we can glimpse much of our former lifestyle in those largely traditional societies still or recently in existence. Societies like those of the New Guinea Highlanders remind us that it was only yesterday, in evolutionary time, when everything changed, and that we moderns still possess bodies and social practices often better adapted to traditional than to modern conditions. This book provides a firsthand picture of the human past as it had been for millions of years, a past that has mostly vanished, and considers what the differences between that past and our present mean for our lives today. The author does not romanticize traditional societies, after all, we are shocked by some of their practices, but he finds that their solutions to universal human problems such as child rearing, elder care, dispute resolution, risk, and physical fitness have much to teach us.
Local Note: 1 6 15 16 17 18 35 53 54 109 112 118 133 138 148 152 159 160 172 176 182 188 193 198 210 211 216 222 231 242 243 244 250 262 264 276
ISBN: 9780670024810
0670024813
9780670785896
067078589X
Statement of Responsibility: Jared Diamond
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (pages 471-481) and index.
Subject Headings: Dani (New Guinean people) History. Dani (New Guinean people) Social life and customs. Dani (New Guinean people) Cultural assimilation. Social evolution. Social change Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea Social life and customs.
Topical Term: Dani (New Guinean people)
Dani (New Guinean people)
Dani (New Guinean people)
Social evolution.
Social change
LCCN: 2012018386
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Mar 06, 2014
  • A_Traveler_Like_Jack rated this: 1.5 stars out of 5.

Not nearly as good as Collapse; and Guns, Germs, and Steel. I was disappointed. I think Jared Diamond has had his day in the sun and it was yesterday. I am glad I picked this up from the library and did not purchase it. True, it was well written, however, I found it to be a HUGE let down and a real slog to get through.

A better read would be Ishmael by Daniel Quinn...

&

Canada’s First Nations – A History of Founding Peoples from Earliest Times by Olive Dickason ( see below)

in regards to the study of anthropology itself:

Dara Culhane

&

Adrian Tanner

&

Gwen Reimer

&

Jean-Philippe Chartrand

&
Dr. Michael Asch

&

Dr. John Burrows

&

Dr. James Tully

&

the Smithsonian Institution’s Wilcomb Washburn, an historian, anthropologist and native American.

&
Law and Anthropology by
René Kuppe, Richard Potz

references:

http://indigenousfoundations.arts.ubc.ca/home/culture/oral-traditions.html

http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/olive-dickason-wrote-the-book-on-aboriginal-history-in-canada/article4182155/?page=all

http://www.naho.ca/jah/english/jah05_01/V5_I1_Restoration_02.pdf

Feb 21, 2014
  • stewstealth rated this: 2 stars out of 5.

This book is overly long for the meager comparisons and recommendations that the author suggests for modern societies ( at the same time acknowledging rural society in the Western world is close to Traditional social dynamics.) The author briefly mentions but does not pursue unequal work burdens between the sexes in traditional society nor forced marriages. Besides the section on diet there isn't much here.The author should have probably just written an autobiography.

Jan 02, 2014
  • Thai5357 rated this: 2.5 stars out of 5.

I'm not familiar with any of the controversies as mentioned in other comments. This book reminded me of a few of my Anthropology classes in college, so it didn't contain a lot of new facts for me. I think it's an interesting subject, and I appreciate how well researched it is, but it's a bore to read. It took me a while to get through this book, and towards the end, I just gave up because I was sick of the repetitiveness. Read this book if you didn't take an Anthropology class.

At first I liked this book but due to some commenters below, I'm now questioning it. Look online for controversies about the author.

Oct 31, 2013
  • pablo rated this: 3.5 stars out of 5.

Diamond is always a good read but this one is a bit heavy. Too many details weigh down the reading. The ideas at base are sometimes fascinating but a good editor could have improved this immensely.

Oct 03, 2013
  • jmikesmith rated this: 4 stars out of 5.

The writing is clear and precise and Diamond has clearly done a lot of research. The book is perhaps longer than it needs to be. Diamond knows the topic well and relates his personal experiences with New Guineans to great effect. But in the end, it's not clear how relevant his observations and suggestions are. Modern societies are structured very differently from traditional ones and it is not clear how we could adopt the good practices of traditional societies into our own society. A key point of Diamond's argument is that we evolved to live in traditional societies. What he doesn't seem to be willing to consider is that evolution doesn't stop. We have only just begun, in evolutionary terms, to live in modern societies. It may take thousands more years before humans fully adapt to this new way of living.

May 07, 2013
  • Stratified_nomad rated this: 4 stars out of 5.

While this book isn't as exceptional and comprehensive as Diamond's two previous books (Collapse; and Guns, Germs, and Steel), The World Until Yesterday is still a valuable, fair comparison of traditional (hunter/gatherer) and modern (agricultural/industrial) societies. While it doesn't contain many new insights, and some of the personal annecdotes can be somewhat prolix and tedious, it's still an informative distillation of his previous books. Diamond makes a convincing argument that there are significant attributes and liabilities of both traditional and modern societies: By incorporating some traditional practices into our societies, we moderns would greatly improve our mental and physical health.

This book is so misleading and racist that it compelled Papuan leaders to demand an apology from the author.

Mar 16, 2013
  • StarGladiator rated this: 0.5 stars out of 5.

Negative rating due to lack of scholarship. (Yeah...yeah....yeah...I realize Diamond was awarded the Pulitzer, as other submediocrities from time to time are awarded it, but Diamond should stick with what he's best at, writing the introductions to hedge fund books!) One would be much better served reading the far superior social/economic anthropologist, Prof. Joseph Tainter.

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app05 Version Arkelstorp Last updated 2014/10/16 16:30